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Oracle - SQL - Not Null Constraint
 
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Oracle - SQL - Not Null Constraint Watch more Videos at https://www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htm Lecture By: Mr. Anadi Sharma, Tutorials Point India Private Limited.
NULL Value in Oracle Database | Oracle Tutorials for Beginners
 
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NULL Value in Oracle Database | Oracle Tutorials for Beginners NULL Value in Oracle Database NULL Value in Oracle SQL NULL Value in SQL NULL Value in Oracle Database Oracle Tutorials for Beginners Oracle Tutorials for Beginners Oracle PL/SQL Tutorials for Beginners Oracle PL/SQL Tutorials for Beginners Oracle PL/SQL Tutorials for Beginners how to select null values in oracle oracle compare null values in where clause null=null in oracle how to handle null in case statement in oracle how to check null value in oracle stored procedure oracle nvl null value in oracle query how to check empty column value in oracle how to select null values in oracle oracle is null vs = null oracle nvl oracle is not null oracle decode oracle isnull oracle case when null select null from table in oracle oracle compare null values in where clause oracle select null how to check empty column value in oracle oracle sql not null or empty oracle is not null how to handle null in case statement in oracle oracle isnull oracle nvl
Views: 526 Oracle PL/SQL World
SQL with Oracle 10g XE - Using ALTER TABLE to Modify Table Columns
 
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In this video I use the ALTER TABLE command to modify an existing field column. The command will allow you to change the data types, whether the field can be null, or even the primary key. When using the ALTER TABLE command you would use the keyword MODIFY to make changes to an existing column. Be careful when changing a data type of the null field as existing data may cause an error if not in compliance with the new change. The code I used to alter the Books table is : ALTER TABLE BOOKS MODIFY ISBN_10 VARCHAR(13); This video is part of a series of videos with the purpose of learning the SQL language. For more information visit Lecture Snippets at http://lecturesnippets.com.
Views: 15707 Lecture Snippets
Create, Alter, Drop Not Null constraint in SQL Server - Part 10
 
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Subscribe to IT PORT : https://www.youtube.com/c/itport28 SQL Server Tutorial in Tamil : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ64enJDwWVvN3KduuZRlUrb3 SQL Server Concepts in Tamil : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ67kdNIByJKAGBIBhor_h4Hs SQL Server Analytic Functions in Tamil : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ65XIU5azEUgLVrBKEl-jWMV SQL Server Tutorial : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ66AYrzPtxt2SeeR4UABcBcO SQL Server Concepts : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ66zRe8-nDDy-YHY2o0rmbn4 SQL Server Analytic Functions : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ64hTsEdhLsVBquE1vERWngX NULL is the term used to represent a missing value. A NULL value in a table is a value in a field that appears to be blank. A field with a NULL value is a field with no value. NULL value is different than a zero value or a field that contains spaces By default, a column can hold NULL values. The NOT NULL constraint enforces a column to NOT accept NULL values. This enforces a field to always contain a value, which means that you cannot insert a new record, or update a record without adding a value to this field
Views: 412 IT Port
auto increment in sql oracle - ( Auto increment field )
 
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auto increment in sql oracle ----------------------------------------------- CREATE table customers ( customer_id int not null, customer_name varchar(50), primary key (customer_id) ); create sequence customer_id minvalue 1 start with 1 cache 10; insert into customers values(customer_id.nextval,'maxwel'); -- to drop sequence drop sequence customer_id
Views: 5380 Data Disc
SQL Server 17 - ON DELETE and ON UPDATE
 
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Now, what happens when you have successfully created a reference, and now you try deleting the parent? This is where the ON DELETE clause comes in. This is essentially how we configure how strict a foreign key is. There are 4 options you can give for an ON DELETE: Standard SQL Server NO ACTION Yes (Default) CASCADE Yes SET NULL Yes SET DEFAULT Yes Now the default is NO ACTION. This means that when you try to delete a parent row, SQL Server is going to throw an error and not let you. Cascade means that if you delete the parent row, any rows that reference that parent will also be deleted. This is pretty dangerous and not often recommended. SET NULL will set the foreign key to be NULL. Now obviously, this is going to require that the foreign key is not labelled NOT NULL. Finally, set DEFAULT will change the reference to the child row to some default value. We have not discussed defaults, but a column can have a default value. For example, we could make a deleted user in our Users table, and set the default for the foreign key to be the deleted user, and when any other users are deleted it will default to the deleted user UserId. In addition to the ON DELETE clause, there is the ON UPDATE clause. This one is a little less common because it configures what happens when a parent value changes. Obviously, when you are referencing a primary key, the ON UPDATE clause is nearly useless. That's because the primary key value is never supposed to change. If, on the other hand, we have a foreign key referencing a UNIQUE column that is not a primary key, it may change occasionally. So the only times you have to worry about the ON UPDATE clause is with foreign keys referencing UNIQUE columns that are not a primary key, and when you have natural keys that break the rules and actually do change at some point in time. The ON UPDATE clause has the same options as the ON DELETE clause and they all work the same way. Now, the last thing you need to know about foreign keys is that they must match the data type of the column you are referencing. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Support me! http://www.patreon.com/calebcurry Subscribe to my newsletter: http://bit.ly/JoinCCNewsletter Donate!: http://bit.ly/DonateCTVM2. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Additional Links~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ More content: http://CalebCurry.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/CalebTheVideoMaker Google+: https://plus.google.com/+CalebTheVideoMaker2 Twitter: http://twitter.com/calebCurry Amazing Web Hosting - http://bit.ly/ccbluehost (The best web hosting for a cheap price!)
Views: 4994 Caleb Curry
Adding Not Null to an Existing Column
 
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In this episode, I'm going to add a not null constraint to an existing Postgres column. To learn more and for full transcript visit us at https://www.pgcasts.com This episode is sponsored by Hashrocket, a consultancy specializing in PostgreSQL. Visit us at https://hashrocket.com
Views: 1862 PG Casts
MySQL 17 - ON DELETE and ON UPDATE
 
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Now, what happens when you have successfully created a reference, and now you try deleting the parent? This is where the ON DELETE clause come in. This is essentially how we configure how strict a foreign key is. There are 3 options you can give for an ON DELETE: RESTRICT / NO ACTION Yes - In MySQL they are the same, but not all DBMS. CASCADE Yes SET NULL Yes Now the default is RESTRICT. This means that when you try to delete a parent row, MySQL is going to throw an error and not let you. Cascade means that if you delete the parent row, any rows that reference that parent will also be deleted. This is pretty dangerous and not often recommended. SET NULL will set the foreign key to be NULL. Now obviously, this is going to require that the foreign key is not labelled NOT NULL. In addition to the ON DELETE clause, there is the ON UPDATE clause. This one is a little less common because it configures what happens when a parent value changes. Obviously, when you are referencing a primary key, the ON UPDATE clause is nearly useless. That's because the primary key value is never supposed to change. If, on the other hand, we have a foreign key referencing a UNIQUE column that is not a primary key, it may change occasionally. So the only times you have to worry about the ON UPDATE clause is with foreign keys referencing UNIQUE columns that are not a primary key, and when you have natural keys that break the rules and actually do change at some point in time. The ON UPDATE clause has the same options as the ON DELETE clause and they all work the same way. Now, the last thing you need to know about foreign keys is that they must match the data type of the column you are referencing. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Support me! http://www.patreon.com/calebcurry Subscribe to my newsletter: http://bit.ly/JoinCCNewsletter Donate!: http://bit.ly/DonateCTVM2. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Additional Links~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ More content: http://CalebCurry.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/CalebTheVideoMaker Google+: https://plus.google.com/+CalebTheVideoMaker2 Twitter: http://twitter.com/calebCurry Amazing Web Hosting - http://bit.ly/ccbluehost (The best web hosting for a cheap price!)
Views: 14248 Caleb Curry
26. IS NULL and IS NOT NULL in SQL (Hindi)
 
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Please Subscribe Channel Like, Share and Comment Visit : www.geekyshows.com
Views: 19431 Geeky Shows
Learn How to Update Data Rows using Update Statement in SQL
 
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Learn about using UPDATE statement in SQL. As the name suggests UPDATE statement is used to update the data rows in a table. The UPDATE statement can update one or multiple column values in single SQL statement. WHERE clause is used to specify the data row to be updated. UPDATE statement without WHERE clause will update all the data rows in the table. Any existing data rows or records in target table remain unaffected. Here are the examples UPDATE statements, UPDATE tablename SET column1 = newvalue; UPDATE tablename SET column1 = newvalue1, column2 = newvalue2 WHERE columnid = 3; Select the "school" database, "USE school;" Run a simple SQL statement to display all the data rows in students table using SQL statement, "SELECT * FROM students;" Here in this result set, take a look at studentid 1. Suppose we have accidentally added this student record under class first instead of second. And now we are going to update this row to change the class value from 'First' to 'Second'. We will use the SQL statement, "UPDATE students SET class = 'Second' WHERE studentid = 1;" Press enter to execute the statement and display all the data rows in 'students' table, "SELECT * FROM students;" And sure enough the class value for studentid 1 is changed from 'First' to 'Second'. Check out the whole playlist of SQL Tutorials or Individual video from the following links, SQL Tutorial for Beginners. Introduction to SQL Basics https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLhwzZMYRiUErXXX0Ryud2R7RjesCEdTqi 1.Learn What is SQL? Introduction to SQL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ox6zUOKascs 2.Learn How to Install MySQL Database Server on Windows Operating System https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vtnoWaydkEU 3.Learn What is Database? How to Create and Show Databases using SQL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-yJgWq6K_U8 4.Learn How to Select and Use Existing Database using SQL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QMViQ38SPxc 5.Learn How to Delete or Remove Database using SQL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wjEOZKvfH4c 6.Learn What is Database Table? How to Create a Database Table using SQL? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8SvtNIfzC4o 7.Learn How to Modify or Update Database Table using SQL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1he5oZzG33o 8.Learn How to Delete or Remove Database Table using SQL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JD87WvBist0 9.Learn How to Add Data Rows in a Table using SQL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UB-bQxAQbWg 10.Learn How to Use INSERT INTO SELECT Statement in SQL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4ApxHF4R1g 11.Learn How to Update Data Rows using Update Statement in SQL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lE1BmNbFJdo 12.Learn How to Delete Data Rows using Delete Statement in SQL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ViqX1tFgYM Subscribe to my channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCvrq9OowoORTV5Gs_jpADhw
TSQL: Altering Column To NOT NULL Causes Log Growth Spike
 
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From 40% to 44% in this test example and we take a peak at what's happening inside the log.
Views: 49 SQLInSix Minutes
NOT NULL Constraint in Oracle Database
 
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NOT NULL Constraint in Oracle Database
Oracle SQL Tutorial 19 - ON DELETE (SET NULL and CASCADE)
 
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Welcome everyone! Something you need to consider when you are creating foreign keys is what happens if you delete the parent? As a reminder, the parent is the row that has the value you are referencing in the row that has a foreign key. Why is this something important to consider? It's important because foreign keys need to protect us from two primary things, unacceptable INSERT statements, and unacceptable DELETE statements. Let's see what happens when we try to insert incorrect data into the table with the foreign key: INSERT INTO projects VALUES (1, 'Update website homepage', 'CalebCurry') The response tells us plainly that there is no such user in the users table. So this works correctly. Deleting data on the other hand works a bit differently because the database does not know what you want to do with the child row when you delete the parent from the parent table. By default, we will get an error message that prevents the parent from being deleted, but there are some other options. How do we configure this? This is where the ON DELETE statement comes in. We add the keywords ON DELETE right after the foreign key and then we can give it the option of CASCADE or SET NULL. CASCADE means that if we delete the parent, we are also going to delete the child. In our situation what that means is that if somebody creates a project in our project table and then that persons account gets deleted, all of the projects he owns will also be deleted. CASCADE: CREATE TABLE projects( project_id NUMBER, Project_name VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) UNIQUE, creator VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) NOT NULL, CONSTRAINT projects_pk PRIMARY KEY (project_id), CONSTRAINT projects_users_fk FOREIGN KEY (creator) REFERENCES users (username) ON DELETE CASCADE ) SET NULL will take the value in the child table and get rid of it. What you are left with is NULL. This means that we have an orphaned child. The first thought you might have is that it is a bad thing to have an orphaned child, but in databases that is not always so. In our application if we had it set to SET NULL, when a user account gets deleted the projects would remain in existence they would just lack a creator. This might be a good thing if you are concerned about the long term survival of a project, this might be the route you want to go. It ultimately depends on the application purpose. If you don't like CASCADE or SET NULL, you can leave the entire ON DELETE statement and just have Oracle throw an error when a parent is deleted. As for us, we are going to use ON DELETE CASCADE. We need to use this with extreme caution. If you are not careful, someday you will run a delete a row and that will cascade through you database deleting a bunch of stuff you didn't want to delete. Stuff happens, so make sure you back up your database every once in eternity. Now, in the last video we started with a database design that had three tables. We've only created two in this video. In the next video we are going to create the next one, which is a little special. Then we'll finish things up by adding some indexes. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/calebcurry Subscribe to my newsletter: http://bit.ly/JoinCCNewsletter Donate!: http://bit.ly/DonateCTVM2. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Additional Links~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ More content: http://CalebCurry.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/CalebTheVideoMaker Google+: https://plus.google.com/+CalebTheVideoMaker2 Twitter: http://twitter.com/calebCurry Amazing Web Hosting - http://bit.ly/ccbluehost (The best web hosting for a cheap price!)
Views: 15119 Caleb Curry
Load data into Dynamics CRM using SSIS - Insert, Update, Delete, Upsert
 
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Learn how to load SQL Server data into Dynamics CRM using SSIS (Bulk Insert, Upsert, Delete, Update). Read below article for step by step tutorial. https://zappysys.com/blog/load-dynamics-crm-using-ssis-insert-upsert-delete-update/ Above article covers following topics. 1 Introduction 2 Requirements 3 Getting Started 3.1 Configure SSIS Dynamics CRM Connection 3.2 Bulk Insert – SQL Server data Import into Dynamics CRM using SSIS 3.3 Bulk Upsert – Update or Insert Dynamics CRM Records in SSIS 3.3.1 Create Alternate Key for CRM Upsert 3.3.2 Configure SSIS CRM Destination for Upsert 3.3.3 Handling Inserted / Updated Records Output 3.4 Bulk Update – Modify Dynamics CRM Records in SSIS 3.5 Bulk Delete – Delete Dynamics CRM Records in SSIS 4 Error Handling 5 Handling Special Data Types (PartyList, Lookup, PickList) 6 Conclusion 6.1 Share this: 6.2 Related ====================================== SSIS Dynamics CRM Destination Connector (Dynamics 365 / On-Premises CRM) ====================================== SSIS Dynamics CRM Destination Connector can be used to perform bulk insert, update, delete and upsert operation on Microsoft Dynamics CRM Service such as Dynamics 365 Online or On-Premises installation. Features ------------- Bulk Insert data to Microsoft Dynamics CRM service from any source such as SQL Server, JSON, Oracle Support for Bulk Upsert (Insert or Update) Support for Bulk Delete Support for New record Output (Useful to detect New vs Updated when you use Upsert) Support for Error Handling (Error output for failed records) Support for SQL Server 2017, 2016, 2014, 2012, 2008 (32/64 bit) and now Azure Data Factory =========================================== Here is another article which explains how to read data from Dynamics 365 or On Premises CRM Instance. https://zappysys.com/blog/ssis-dynamics-crm-read-import-crm-365-onpremises/ This article covers following topics. 1 Introduction 2 Requirements for SSIS Dynamics CRM read component 3 SSIS Dynamics CRM Source – Video Tutorial 4 Getting started with SSIS Dynamics CRM read component 4.1 Configure Dynamics CRM Connection 4.2 How to create a Dynamics CRM Source 4.3 Configure SQL Server Destination 4.4 Load Dynamics CRM Data to SQL Server 5 How to query Dynamics CRM 5.1 How to generate a FetchXML query using UI 5.2 SELECT All Columns (*) 5.3 SELECT Specified Columns and Alias with SSIS Dynamics CRM 5.4 WHERE (AND conditions) 5.5 WHERE (OR conditions) 5.6 WHERE (Mixing AND / OR conditions) 5.7 SELECT DISTINCT (Exclude duplicates) 5.8 SELECT TOP using SSIS Dynamics CRM read 5.9 GROUP BY / Aggregate functions 5.10 INNER JOIN (matching child records) 5.11 LEFT OUTER JOIN (‘not in’ type query) 5.12 ORDER BY 5.13 OPERATOR – Equal ( = ) 5.14 OPERATOR – Not Equal ( != ) 5.15 OPERATOR – Greater Than 5.16 OPERATOR – Less Than 5.17 OPERATOR – IN (Check for multiple matching values) 5.18 OPERATOR – NULL (Check for NULL values) 5.19 OPERATOR – NOT NULL (Check for NOT NULL values) 5.20 OPERATOR – LIKE (Pattern search) 5.21 OPERATOR – NOT LIKE (Pattern search) 5.22 OPERATOR – UNDER (Find all children for given hierarchy) with the SSIS Dynamics CRM read task 5.23 Using DateTime Operators with the SSIS Dynamics CRM read task 5.24 Query – All activities (sort, outer join, alias) with the SSIS Dynamics CRM read task 6 How to use SSIS variables with Fetch XML in SSIS for SSIS Dynamics 7 CRM read ===================================================== SSIS Dynamics CRM Source Connector (Dynamics 365 / On-Premises CRM) ===================================================== SSIS Dynamics CRM Source Connector can be used to read data from Microsoft Dynamics CRM Service such as Dynamics 365 Online or On-Premises installation. You can use simple Table mode or write custom Query to extract desired data. Features ------------- Multiple modes (i.e. Table or Query) to read data from Dynamics CRM Online or On-Premises version Support for FetchXML Query language Support for automatic conversion between UTC date/time and Local date/time Intuitive user interface with Dynamics CRM Object Browser Support for data preview, max rows, batch size Support for Dynamic query (using SSIS Variable placeholder e.g. {{User::MyVar}} ) Support for SQL Server 2017, 2016, 2014, 2012, 2008 (32/64 bit) and now Azure Data Factory
Views: 1173 ZappySys
The Magic of SQL: Column Update Mystery
 
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You use the update statement in SQL to modify existing values in a row. Normally you have to assign values to each column explicitly. In this video Chris updates the value in one column and also changes the value in another column - without any triggers in sight! Watch the video to see how it's done! ============================ The Magic of SQL with Chris Saxon Copyright © 2015 Oracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Other names may be registered trademarks of their respective owners. Oracle disclaims any warranties or representations as to the accuracy or completeness of this recording, demonstration, and/or written materials (the “Materials”). The Materials are provided “as is” without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including without limitation warranties or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement.
Views: 6437 The Magic of SQL
4- Oracle DB - Primary Foreign Unique Not Null Check Composite Keys Table Level and Column Level.avi
 
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Oracle DB - Primary Foreign Unique Not Null Check Composite Keys Table Level and Column Level
Views: 2681 Adel Sabour
adding  constraints to NEW columns in an existing table
 
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This video explains how to add primary key,not null,unique,default and check constraints to new columns in a table. link to HOW to add constraint while creating table: https:// https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dh_UKs-LnK8 link to how to add new columns with constraints : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNAatxnnwB8 link to how to add constraints to existing column https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=02_fXRQpwSc how to drop all constraints on the table: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CM7FPqIr6gc subscribe - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNl7...
Views: 660 kwl zerotwonine
SQL Null or Empty   How to Check for Null or Empty Column in SQL Server   SQL Training Online
 
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http://www.sqltrainingonline.com SQL Null or Empty - How to Check for Null or Empty Column in SQL Server - SQL Training Online You can download the sample table script at http://www.sqltrainingonline.com/how-to-filter-for-sql-null-or-empty-string/. In this video, I show you how to filter for a SQL null or empty string. It can be difficult to filter a null because you can't simply compare with an equal sign. You have to use a special IS NULL clause to make the filter work. I also show you how to combine both the SQL Null and Empty String together in a special trick with the isnull SQL Server function. I use SQL Server 2012 to demonstrate the technique. Let me know what you think by commenting or sharing on twitter, facebook, google+, etc. If you enjoy the video, please give it a like, comment, or subscribe to my channel. You can visit me at any of the following: SQL Training Online: http://www.sqltrainingonline.com Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/sql_by_joey Google+: https://plus.google.com/#100925239624117719658/posts LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/joeyblue Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/sqltrainingonline
Views: 16947 Joey Blue
Tutorial#27 How  NULL value treated in Oracle SQL Database|IS NULL Operator
 
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Online SQL tutorial , explaining about the different ways to treats NULL values in Oracle SQL server or How we can replace null values with some other values using IS NULL Operator or Different ways to replace NULL in SQL server IS NULL and IS NOT NULL in SQL or IS NULL Operator in SQL Query with Example orHow to Check for Null or Empty Column in SQL or Problems with Null Value in SQL or is NOT NULL, IS NULL, NVL FUNCTION in Oracle SQL or How can I find unknown values? orHow to convert null to 0 in SQL server orNull value in Oracle or replacing NULL in SQL In this series we cover the following topics: SQL basics, create table oracle, SQL functions, SQL queries, SQL server, SQL developer installation, Oracle database installation, SQL Statement, OCA, Data Types, Types of data types, SQL Logical Operator, SQL Function,Join- Inner Join, Outer join, right outer join, left outer join, full outer join, self-join, cross join, View, SubQuery, Set Operator. follow me on: Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/LrnWthr-319371861902642/?ref=bookmarks Contacts Email: [email protected] Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lrnwthr/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/LrnWthR
Views: 77 EqualConnect Coach
Change "Not Null" to "Null" Across the Database
 
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Nathan Gambill (Microsoft Manager) goes over an SQL Procedure to change "Not Null" to "Null" across a designated database. This helps prevent NULL inserts into NOT NULL column errors.
Views: 445 Agossi SQL
8. Use LOG ERRORS to suppress SQL errors at the row level.
 
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The impact of a non-query DML statement is usually "all or nothing". If my update statement identifies 100 rows to change, then either all 100 rows are changed or none are. And none might be the outcome if, say, an error occurs on just one of the rows (value too large to fit in column, NULL value for non-NULL column, etc.). But if you have a situation in which you would really like to "preserve" as many of those row-level changes as possible, you can add the LOG ERRORS clause to your DML statement. Then, if any row changes raise an error, that information is written to your error log table, and processing continues. IMPORTANT: if you use LOG ERRORS, you must must must check that error log table immediately after the DML statement completes. You should also enhance the default error log table. Related blog post: http://stevenfeuersteinonplsql.blogspot.com/2016/03/nine-good-to-knows-about-plsql-error.html ======================================== Practically Perfect PL/SQL with Steven Feuerstein Copyright © 2015 Oracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Other names may be registered trademarks of their respective owners. Oracle disclaims any warranties or representations as to the accuracy or completeness of this recording, demonstration, and/or written materials (the “Materials”). The Materials are provided “as is” without any warranty of any kind, either express or implied, including without limitation warranties or merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement.
61. ALTER TABLE for Adding Constraint in Column SQL (Hindi)
 
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Please Subscribe Channel Like, Share and Comment Visit : www.geekyshows.com
Views: 8498 Geeky Shows
SQL Server 30 - How to INSERT Data
 
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Now that we have our tables created, we need to learn how to actually put data into our tables. That is where the INSERT command comes in. The basic syntax looks like: INSERT INTO TableName VALUES(data…); Data is where we put a value for each column. Strings are single quoted, numbers are left blank with no quotes. Just like when we create tables we try to create the parent tables first, we do the same with inserting data. We always want to insert the parent rows first. So let's add a species to our table. As a reminder, this is what our CREATE TABLE looks like: CREATE TABLE Species( ID INT PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY, Species VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL UNIQUE, FriendlyName VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL ); Now to insert data: INSERT INTO Species VALUES('Pentalagus P. furnessi', 'Bunny'); Now you can see that there may a violation of everything being atomic because we are actually storing the genus and species of this animal in one column. But…YOLO. Now we can view this data by finding the table in the object explorer, right clicking, and selecting Edit Top 200 Rows. Notice that the IDENTITY column is automatically filled. Now, this is a great time to show you some stuff regarding foreign keys. The first thing I want to show you is how they protect our data integrity. Let's insert some data in the Animals table and try to reference an invalid species. Once again, here is what our table creation looks like: CREATE TABLE Animals( ID INT PRIMARY KEY IDENTITY, Name VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL, Species INT NOT NULL REFERENCES Species(ID), ContactEmail VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL UNIQUE ); INSERT INTO Animals VALUES('Sally', 2, '[email protected]calebcurry.com'); SQL Server does not let us insert this data. The second thing I wanted to show you is that the name of the constraint that is in violation is being shown here. That is why naming your constraints can come in handy so when this happens you can find it much easier. Last thing is that if you want to INSERT multiple rows, throw a comma after the VALUES, and put another parenthesis with more data: INSERT INTO Animals VALUES('Sally', 1', '[email protected]'), ('Franklin', 1, '[email protected]') ; Maybe someday we will get around to adding a row to our species table for turtles, but for now we are going to make Franklin a bunny. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Support me! http://www.patreon.com/calebcurry Subscribe to my newsletter: http://bit.ly/JoinCCNewsletter Donate!: http://bit.ly/DonateCTVM2. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Additional Links~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ More content: http://CalebCurry.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/CalebTheVideoMaker Google+: https://plus.google.com/+CalebTheVideoMaker2 Twitter: http://twitter.com/calebCurry Amazing Web Hosting - http://bit.ly/ccbluehost (The best web hosting for a cheap price!)
Views: 3584 Caleb Curry
Oracle SQL Tutorial 18 - How to Create Foreign Keys
 
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In this video we are going to be creating foreign keys. I highly recommend watching the previous video before you watch this one. Essentially, we are creating a very simple database for a system where we can create projects and add people to those projects. We started with the users table: --Delete the table if needed: --DROP TABLE users; CREATE TABLE users( user_id NUMBER, username VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) UNIQUE, CONSTRAINT users_pk PRIMARY KEY (user_id) ); Now we are going to create a table for projects with a column that is a foreign key to the username. We're going to want to make this match data types: CREATE TABLE projects( project_id NUMBER, project_name VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) UNIQUE, creator VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) ) Next, we need to add the column attributes we decided on last video: CREATE TABLE projects( project_id NUMBER, project_name VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) UNIQUE, creator VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) NOT NULL ) NOT NULL because we want every project to have a creator, but we are not labeling UNIQUE because that means we could only have a specific username once in the table. We want to allow a user to create multiple projects. We also need to add a primary key: CREATE TABLE projects( project_id NUMBER, project_name VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) UNIQUE, creator VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) NOT NULL, CONSTRAINT projects_pk PRIMARY KEY (username) ) Now, the question that remains is, how can I tell Oracle that I want the username to reference the username column of the other table? We have to make a foreign key constraint. As you've learned from the previous videos, there are about three ways to create constraints. You can do it inline at the column level, unnamed. You can do it at the column level, named, and you can do it at the Table level, named. Usually the table-level is preferred, but I will quickly remind you how to do all three again. CREATE TABLE projects( project_id NUMBER, project_name VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) UNIQUE, creator VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) NOT NULL REFERENCES users (username), CONSTRAINT projects_pk PRIMARY KEY (project_id) ) This works, but if we want to name it, we should do this: CREATE TABLE projects( project_id NUMBER, project_name VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) UNIQUE, creator VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) NOT NULL CONSTRAINT projects_users_fk REFERENCES users (username), CONSTRAINT projects_pk PRIMARY KEY (project_id) ) This works, but the preferred method is to do it at the table level: CREATE TABLE projects( project_id NUMBER, project_name VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) UNIQUE, creator VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) NOT NULL, CONSTRAINT projects_pk PRIMARY KEY (project_id), CONSTRAINT projects_users_fk FOREIGN KEY (creator) REFERENCES users (username) ) Great! So you've learned how to create a foreign key, now we can see it inside of Oracle SQL Developer. One important thing when it comes to foreign keys is what happens when have data in your database and you try to delete the parent row that a row in the child table references? In the next video we are going to configure that using ON DELETE. See you all then and if you enjoy this series, please do me a huge favor by liking the video and subscribing to my YouTube channel. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ HELP ME! http://www.patreon.com/calebcurry Subscribe to my newsletter: http://bit.ly/JoinCCNewsletter Donate!: http://bit.ly/DonateCTVM2. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Additional Links~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ More content: http://CalebCurry.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/CalebTheVideoMaker Google+: https://plus.google.com/+CalebTheVideoMaker2 Twitter: http://twitter.com/calebCurry Amazing Web Hosting - http://bit.ly/ccbluehost (The best web hosting for a cheap price!)
Views: 21291 Caleb Curry
Oracle SQL Tutorial 21 - How to Create / Drop Indexes
 
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In the last video, we wrote up the SQL to create three tables: CREATE TABLE users( user_id NUMBER, username VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) UNIQUE, CONSTRAINT users_pk PRIMARY KEY (user_id) ); CREATE TABLE projects( project_id NUMBER, Project_name VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) UNIQUE, creator VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) NOT NULL, CONSTRAINT projects_pk PRIMARY KEY (project_id), CONSTRAINT projects_users_fk FOREIGN KEY (creator) REFERENCES users (username) ON DELETE CASCADE ); CREATE TABLE project_users( project_id NUMBER NOT NULL REFERENCES projects (project_id) ON DELETE CASCADE, user_id NUMBER NOT NULL REFERENCES users (user_id) ON DELETE CASCADE, CONSTRAINT project_users_pk PRIMARY KEY (project_id, user_id) ); I'm going to increase the size of the users table a bit by adding a first and last name column. CREATE TABLE users( user_id NUMBER, username VARCHAR2(50 CHAR) UNIQUE, first_name VARCHAR2(50 CHAR), last_name VARCHAR2 (50 CHAR), CONSTRAINT users_pk PRIMARY KEY (user_id) ); But before we finish this design, we should consider indexing certain columns. What columns should we index? Well, as a reminder, the columns that are indexed by default are columns with the UNIQUE constraint, and those that are labeled as primary keys. Columns that are not indexed but often should be are those labeled as a foreign key. The column that jumps out the most to me is the creator column of the project table. It's the only foreign key that is not part of some index. Let's fix this by creating our first index. The way we do that is with the CREATE INDEX command. CREATE INDEX projects_creator_ix ON projects (creator) What naming convention are we following for the index? We are naming it by the table name, followed by an underscore, followed by the column, followed by an underscore, followed by an ix (for index). In this situation it does not apply, but if our foreign key column is labeled as UNIQUE, we can add the UNIQUE keyword like this: CREATE UNIQUE INDEX projects_creator_ix ON projects (creator) Now if you want to get rid of an INDEX, you can use this command: DROP INDEX projects_creator_ix Now, if we want to select data from the user table and the project table we can do that much faster. That's because the foreign key and column it references are both indexed and those are the columns we would do the join on. We will discuss how to do joins in a future video. So what are some potential problems with this database design? Overall, it is pretty good. With this design though we need to make sure there is no way for someone to update a user's username. In the next video we are going to discuss why. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Support me on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/calebcurry Subscribe to my newsletter: http://bit.ly/JoinCCNewsletter Donate!: http://bit.ly/DonateCTVM2. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Additional Links~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ More content: http://CalebCurry.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/CalebTheVideoMaker Google+: https://plus.google.com/+CalebTheVideoMaker2 Twitter: http://twitter.com/calebCurry Amazing Web Hosting - http://bit.ly/ccbluehost (The best web hosting for a cheap price!)
Views: 8380 Caleb Curry
Oracle Tutorial - Add and Drop a Column using Alter Table Statement
 
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Oracle Tutorials for beginners: Add and Drop a Column using Alter Statement
Views: 37 Tech Acad
Cara Membuat Table Di ORACLE SQL DEVELOPER PART 2
 
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Create Table Di ORACLE SQL DEVELIPER Add Column Di ORACLE SQL DEVELIPER Alter Table Di ORACLE SQL DEVELIPER Modify Column Di ORACLE SQL DEVELIPER Rename Table Di ORACLE SQL DEVELIPER Rename Column Di ORACLE SQL DEVELIPER Drop Column Di ORACLE SQL DEVELIPER Drop Table Di ORACLE SQL DEVELIPER ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CREATE TABLE MAHASISWA ( NIM NUMBER(2) NOT NULL, NAMA VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL, CONSTRAINT MAHASISWA_PK PRIMARY KEY (NIM) ENABLE ); ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ALTER TABLE MAHASISWA ADD ( ALAMAT VARCHAR(45) NOT NULL, BERAT NUMBER(2) NOT NULL ); ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- DESC MAHASISWA; ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ALTER TABLE MAHASISWA MODIFY BERAT VARCHAR(2); ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ALTER TABLE MAHASISWA RENAME COLUMN BERAT TO UMUR; ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ALTER TABLE MAHASISWA DROP COLUMN UMUR; ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ALTER TABLE MAHASISWA RENAME TO STUDENT; ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- DESC STUDENT; ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- DROP TABLE STUDENT; -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Views: 88 Dwiki Olajuwon
SQL Constraints - NOT NULL , UNIQUE , PRIMARY KEY , FOREIGN KEY , CHECK , INDEX , default
 
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SQL is a standard Structured query language for storing, manipulating and retrieving data in databases. NOT NULL , UNIQUE , PRIMARY KEY , FOREIGN KEY , CHECK , INDEX , default 1) NOT NULL - Ensures that a column cannot have a NULL value 2) UNIQUE - Ensures that all values in a column are different 3) PRIMARY KEY - A combination of a NOT NULL and UNIQUE. Uniquely identifies each row in a table 4) FOREIGN KEY - Uniquely identifies a row/record in another table. The table containing the foreign key is called the child table, and the table containing the candidate key is called the referenced or parent table. prevents invalid data and destroy links between tables. 5) CHECK - Ensures that all values in a column satisfies a specific condition 6) DEFAULT - Sets a default value for a column when no value is specified 7) INDEX - Used to create and retrieve data from the database very quickly.
Views: 20 R K
SQL tutorials 17: SQL Primary Key constraint,  Drop primary Key
 
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Blog link: http://www.rebellionrider.com/sql-primary-key.htm SQL tutorial on Primary key / SQL Primary key, In this tutorial you will learn about simple primary key, composute primary key, how to drop primary key. defining primary key using create table and alter table along with many other things. Tool used in this tutorial is SQL Developer. This tutorial series is part of SQL expert exam certification training. if you are preparing for SQL certification you can use my tutorials. This SQL Tutorial is a part of free training. Copy Cloud referral link || Use this link to join copy cloud and get 20GB of free storage https://copy.com?r=j7eYO7 Contacts E-Mail [email protected] Twitter https://twitter.com/rebellionrider Instagram http://instagram.com/rebellionrider Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj Linkedin. http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ Thanks for linking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com So Primary Key There are two types of Primary keys First is Simple primary Key: Primary key which Involves only one column and Second is Composite Primary Key: Primary Key which involves more than one column. We will start with Simple primary key. You can create Primary key either with Create Table statement of by using Alter table Statement. Let's define simple primary key using create table statements. With create table statement we can either define primary key at column level or at table level. We will start with defining Primary key at column level using create table statement. You just have to put keyword Primary key after data type and size of column while defining a column of a table. Here oracle server will create a primary key on product id with default constraint name which will be slightly difficult to understand. You can give your own name to your constraint which is also a good practice.
Views: 99278 Manish Sharma
Create, Alter, Drop Not Null constraint in SQL Server - Part 10 Tamil
 
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Subscribe to IT PORT : https://www.youtube.com/c/itport28 SQL Server Tutorial in Tamil : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ64enJDwWVvN3KduuZRlUrb3 SQL Server Concepts in Tamil : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ67kdNIByJKAGBIBhor_h4Hs SQL Server Analytic Functions in Tamil : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ65XIU5azEUgLVrBKEl-jWMV SQL Server Tutorial : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ66AYrzPtxt2SeeR4UABcBcO SQL Server Concepts : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ66zRe8-nDDy-YHY2o0rmbn4 SQL Server Analytic Functions : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLouAaeZ4xQ64hTsEdhLsVBquE1vERWngX NULL is the term used to represent a missing value. A NULL value in a table is a value in a field that appears to be blank. A field with a NULL value is a field with no value. NULL value is different than a zero value or a field that contains spaces By default, a column can hold NULL values. The NOT NULL constraint enforces a column to NOT accept NULL values. This enforces a field to always contain a value, which means that you cannot insert a new record, or update a record without adding a value to this field By default, a column can hold NULL values. The NOT NULL constraint enforces a column to NOT accept NULL values. This enforces a field to always contain a value, which means that you cannot insert a new record, or update a record without adding a value to this field Explained in Tamil
Views: 271 IT Port
Merge Statement in Oracle SQL with Example (UPDATE/DELETE or INSERT)
 
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This video demonstrates how to write a Merge Statement in oracle sql, how it is useful in doing a conditional update or delete or both of them when the condition between the target table and source table is evaluated to true, and how we can insert the record into the target table when condition is evaluated to false. The video also shows the use of UPDATE, DELETE and INSERT with Merge, and also the various possible ways to use a Merge statement!!!
Views: 8467 Kishan Mashru
SQL NOT NULL Constraint Telugu | WHAT IS NOT NULL constraints-vlr training
 
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For All sql videos in telugu http://www.vlrtraining.in/sql-training-videos-telugu/ In Telugu: SQL NOT NULL Constraint Telugu WHAT IS NOT NULL constraints? MySQL NOT NULL Constraint sql not null query not null in mysql MySQL NOT NULL Constraint The NOT NULL constraint enforces a column to NOT accept NULL values. This enforces a field to always contain a value, which means that you cannot insert a new record, or update a record without adding a value to this field. In English: download sql study material Website: http://www.vlrtrain.in/2016/09/download-sql-files.html Learn SQL sql tutorial for beginners sql commands oracle sql tutorial sql tutorial advanced mysql tutorial sql tutorial video SQL Tutorial, Tutorials SQL
Views: 775 VLR Training
Oracle SQL Tutorial For Beginners | Oracle SQL Online Training - Session 1
 
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Course : Oracle SQL Online Training Mode of Training : Online Duration : 40 Hours Timings : Flexible Oracle SQL Online Training Demo Registration Link : http://svsoftsolutions.com/demo.aspx Introduction to SQL What is SQL? What Can SQL do? RDBMS SQL Syntax Database Tables SQL Statements Overview of Most Important SQL Commands SELECT UPDATE DELETE INSERT CREATE TABLE ALTER TABLE DROP TABLE CREATE INDEX DROP INDEX SQL SELECT Statement SELECT syntax Demo Database SELECT Column Example SELECT * Example SQL Distinct SELECT DISTINCT Statement SELECT DISTINCT Syntax SELECT DISTINCT Example SQL WHERE Clause WHERE Clause WHERE Clause Example Operators in the WHERE Clause SQL AND & OR Operators AND Operator Example OR Operator Example Combining AND & OR SQL ORDER BY ORDER BY Syntax ORDER BY Example ORDER BY DESC Example ORDER BY Several Column Examples SQL Insert Into INSERT INTO Syntax INSERT INTO Examples Insert Data into Specified Columns SQL UPDATE UPDATE Syntax UPDATE Example Watch out UPDATE statement. SQL DELETE DELETE Syntax DELETE Examples Delete All the Data SQL Aliases SQL Alias Syntax for Columns Alias Example for Table Columns Alias Example for Tables. SQL Joins Different SQL JOINs INNER JOIN LEFT OUTER JOIN RIGHT OUTER JOIN FULL OUTER JOIN SQL UNION UNION Syntax UNION Example UNION ALL Syntax UNION ALL Example SQL Insert Into Select INSERT INTO SELECT Syntax INSERT INTO SELECT Examples SQL Create Table CREATE TABLE Syntax CREATE TABLE Example SQL Constraints CREATE TABLE + CONSTRAINT Syntax NOT NULL Constraint UNIQUE Constraint UNIQUE Constraint on CREATE TABLE UNIQUE Constraint on ALTER TABLE To DROP a UNIQUE Constraint PRIMARY KEY Constraint PRIMARY KEY Constraint on CREATE TABLE PRIMARY KEY Constraint on ALTER TABLE To DROP a PRIMARY KEY Constraint FOREIGN KEY Constraint FOREIGN KEY Constraint on CREATE TABLE FOREIGN KEY Constraint on ALTER TABLE To DROP a FOREIGN KEY Constraint CHECK Constraint CHECK Constraint on CREATE TABLE CHECK Constraint on ALTER TABLE To DROP a CHECK Constraint DEFAULT Constraint on CREATE TABLE DEFAULT Constraint on ALTER TABLE To DROP a DEFAULT Constraint SQL Create Index CREATE INDEX Syntax CREATE UNIQUE INDEX Syntax CREATE INDEX Example SQL DROP Command The DROP INDEX Statement The DROP TABLE Statement The DROP DATABASE Statement The TRUNCATE TABLE Statement SQL ALTER Command The ALTER TABLE Statement ALTER TABLE Example Change Data Type Example DROP COLUMN Example SQL VIEWS CREATE VIEW Statement CREATE VIEW Syntax CREATE VIEW Examples CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW Syntax Dropping a View SQL NULL Values Working with NULL Values IS NULL IS NOT NULL SQL NULL Functions NVL COALESCE For more details visit our website : www.svsoftsolutions.com Or reach us @ USA : +1-845-915-8712 (Toll Free), India : +91-9642373173
Views: 1382 SV Soft Solutions
Tutorial#73 How to Rename Multiple Columns in Single Query in Oracle SQL Database
 
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Explaining how to alter/Rename columns in Single Query of oracle database, this can be the interview question for Oracle SQL follow me on: Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/LrnWthr-319371861902642/?ref=bookmarks Contacts Email: [email protected] Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/equalconnect/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/LrnWthR #Oracle #equalConnectCoach #rakeshmalviya
Views: 30 EqualConnect Coach
SQL: Delete Vs Truncate Vs Drop
 
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In this tutorial, you'll learn the difference between delete/drop and truncate. PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's procedural extension for SQL and the Oracle relational database. PL/SQL is available in Oracle Database (since version 7), TimesTen in-memory database (since version 11.2.1), and IBM DB2 (since version 9.7).[1] Oracle Corporation usually extends PL/SQL functionality with each successive release of the Oracle Database. PL/SQL includes procedural language elements such as conditions and loops. It allows declaration of constants and variables, procedures and functions, types and variables of those types, and triggers. It can handle exceptions (runtime errors). Arrays are supported involving the use of PL/SQL collections. Implementations from version 8 of Oracle Database onwards have included features associated with object-orientation. One can create PL/SQL units such as procedures, functions, packages, types, and triggers, which are stored in the database for reuse by applications that use any of the Oracle Database programmatic interfaces. PL/SQL works analogously to the embedded procedural languages associated with other relational databases. For example, Sybase ASE and Microsoft SQL Server have Transact-SQL, PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL (which emulates PL/SQL to an extent), and IBM DB2 includes SQL Procedural Language,[2] which conforms to the ISO SQL’s SQL/PSM standard. The designers of PL/SQL modeled its syntax on that of Ada. Both Ada and PL/SQL have Pascal as a common ancestor, and so PL/SQL also resembles Pascal in several aspects. However, the structure of a PL/SQL package does not resemble the basic Object Pascal program structure as implemented by a Borland Delphi or Free Pascal unit. Programmers can define public and private global data-types, constants and static variables in a PL/SQL package.[3] PL/SQL also allows for the definition of classes and instantiating these as objects in PL/SQL code. This resembles usage in object-oriented programming languages like Object Pascal, C++ and Java. PL/SQL refers to a class as an "Abstract Data Type" (ADT) or "User Defined Type" (UDT), and defines it as an Oracle SQL data-type as opposed to a PL/SQL user-defined type, allowing its use in both the Oracle SQL Engine and the Oracle PL/SQL engine. The constructor and methods of an Abstract Data Type are written in PL/SQL. The resulting Abstract Data Type can operate as an object class in PL/SQL. Such objects can also persist as column values in Oracle database tables. PL/SQL is fundamentally distinct from Transact-SQL, despite superficial similarities. Porting code from one to the other usually involves non-trivial work, not only due to the differences in the feature sets of the two languages,[4] but also due to the very significant differences in the way Oracle and SQL Server deal with concurrency and locking. There are software tools available that claim to facilitate porting including Oracle Translation Scratch Editor,[5] CEITON MSSQL/Oracle Compiler [6] and SwisSQL.[7] The StepSqlite product is a PL/SQL compiler for the popular small database SQLite. PL/SQL Program Unit A PL/SQL program unit is one of the following: PL/SQL anonymous block, procedure, function, package specification, package body, trigger, type specification, type body, library. Program units are the PL/SQL source code that is compiled, developed and ultimately executed on the database. The basic unit of a PL/SQL source program is the block, which groups together related declarations and statements. A PL/SQL block is defined by the keywords DECLARE, BEGIN, EXCEPTION, and END. These keywords divide the block into a declarative part, an executable part, and an exception-handling part. The declaration section is optional and may be used to define and initialize constants and variables. If a variable is not initialized then it defaults to NULL value. The optional exception-handling part is used to handle run time errors. Only the executable part is required. A block can have a label. Package Packages are groups of conceptually linked functions, procedures, variables, PL/SQL table and record TYPE statements, constants, cursors etc. The use of packages promotes re-use of code. Packages are composed of the package specification and an optional package body. The specification is the interface to the application; it declares the types, variables, constants, exceptions, cursors, and subprograms available. The body fully defines cursors and subprograms, and so implements the specification. Two advantages of packages are: Modular approach, encapsulation/hiding of business logic, security, performance improvement, re-usability. They support object-oriented programming features like function overloading and encapsulation. Using package variables one can declare session level (scoped) variables, since variables declared in the package specification have a session scope.
Views: 64046 radhikaravikumar
03. T-SQL - Not Null Constraint
 
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This video demonstrates application of NOT NULL constraint on a column while creating a table. During the course of this video we will see how SQL server enforces submitting a value to the columns defined as NOT NULL.
Views: 105 Farrukh Saeed
Oracle Table Creation Inserting Records Null Values 1
 
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DURGASOFT is INDIA's No.1 Software Training Center offers online training on various technologies like JAVA, .NET , ANDROID,HADOOP,TESTING TOOLS , ADF, INFORMATICA, SAP... courses from Hyderabad & Bangalore -India with Real Time Experts. Mail us your requirements to [email protected] so that our Supporting Team will arrange Demo Sessions. Ph:Call +91-8885252627,+91-7207212428,+91-7207212427,+91-8096969696. http://durgasoft.com http://durgasoftonlinetraining.com https://www.facebook.com/durgasoftware http://durgajobs.com https://www.facebook.com/durgajobsinfo......
Oracle || Column level constraints & table level constrains by siva
 
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DURGASOFT is INDIA's No.1 Software Training Center offers online training on various technologies like JAVA, .NET , ANDROID,HADOOP,TESTING TOOLS , ADF, INFORMATICA,TABLEAU,IPHONE,OBIEE,ANJULAR JS, SAP... courses from Hyderabad & Bangalore -India with Real Time Experts. Mail us your requirements to [email protected] so that our Supporting Team will arrange Demo Sessions. Ph:Call +91-8885252627,+91-7207212428,+91-7207212427,+91-8096969696. http://durgasoft.com http://durgasoftonlinetraining.com https://www.facebook.com/durgasoftware http://durgajobs.com https://www.facebook.com/durgajobsinfo............
Tutorial 12- UNIQUE AND NOT NULL CONSTRAINT
 
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Learn about UNIQUE AND NOT NULL CONSTRAINT in PostgreSQL.
Views: 13392 Programming Guru
Dynamic SQL in Stored Procedure
 
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In this video we will discuss, using dynamic sql in a stored procedure and it's implications from sql injection perspective. We will discuss performance implications of using dynamic sql in a stored procedure in a later video. Text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2017/04/dynamic-sql-in-stored-procedure.html Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2017/04/dynamic-sql-in-stored-procedure_11.html All SQL Server Text Articles http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/free-sql-server-video-tutorials-for.html All SQL Server Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/sql-server.html All SQL Server Tutorial Videos https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL08903FB7ACA1C2FB All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in English https://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists?view=1&sort=dd All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in Arabic https://www.youtube.com/c/KudvenkatArabic/playlists Consider the following stored procedure "spSearchEmployees". We implemented this procedure in Part 139 of SQL Server tutorial. This stored procedure does not have any dynamic sql in it. It is all static sql and is immune to sql injection. Create Procedure spSearchEmployees @FirstName nvarchar(100) = NULL, @LastName nvarchar(100) = NULL, @Gender nvarchar(50) = NULL, @Salary int = NULL As Begin Select * from Employees where (FirstName = @FirstName OR @FirstName IS NULL) AND (LastName = @LastName OR @LastName IS NULL) AND (Gender = @Gender OR @Gender IS NULL) AND (Salary = @Salary OR @Salary IS NULL) End Go Whether you are creating your dynamic sql queries in a client application like ASP.NET web application or in a stored procedure, you should never ever concatenate user input values. Instead you should be using parameters. Notice in the following example, we are creating dynamic sql queries by concatenating parameter values, instead of using parameterized queries. This stored procedure is prone to SQL injection. Let's prove this by creating a "Search Page" that calls this procedure. Create Procedure spSearchEmployeesBadDynamicSQL @FirstName nvarchar(100) = NULL, @LastName nvarchar(100) = NULL, @Gender nvarchar(50) = NULL, @Salary int = NULL As Begin Declare @sql nvarchar(max) Set @sql = 'Select * from Employees where 1 = 1' if(@FirstName is not null) Set @sql = @sql + ' and FirstName=''' + @FirstName + '''' if(@LastName is not null) Set @sql = @sql + ' and LastName=''' + @LastName + '''' if(@Gender is not null) Set @sql = @sql + ' and Gender=''' + @Gender + '''' if(@Salary is not null) Set @sql = @sql + ' and Salary=''' + @Salary + '''' Execute sp_executesql @sql End Go Add a Web Page to the project that we have been working with in our previous video. Name it "DynamicSQLInStoredProcedure.aspx". Copy and paste the HTML and code available on my blog at the following link http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2017/04/dynamic-sql-in-stored-procedure.html At this point, run the application and type the following text in the "Firsname" text and click "Search" button. Notice "SalesDB" database is dropped. Our application is prone to SQL injection as we have implemented dynamic sql in our stored procedure by concatenating strings instead of using parameters. ' Drop database SalesDB -- In the following stored procedure we have implemented dynamic sql by using parameters, so this is not prone to sql injecttion. This is an example for good dynamic sql implementation. Create Procedure spSearchEmployeesGoodDynamicSQL @FirstName nvarchar(100) = NULL, @LastName nvarchar(100) = NULL, @Gender nvarchar(50) = NULL, @Salary int = NULL As Begin Declare @sql nvarchar(max) Declare @sqlParams nvarchar(max) Set @sql = 'Select * from Employees where 1 = 1' if(@FirstName is not null) Set @sql = @sql + ' and [email protected]' if(@LastName is not null) Set @sql = @sql + ' and [email protected]' if(@Gender is not null) Set @sql = @sql + ' and [email protected]' if(@Salary is not null) Set @sql = @sql + ' and [email protected]' Execute sp_executesql @sql, N'@FN nvarchar(50), @LN nvarchar(50), @Gen nvarchar(50), @sal int', @[email protected], @[email protected], @[email protected], @[email protected] End Go On the code-behind page, use stored procedure spSearchEmployeesGoodDynamicSQL instead of spSearchEmployeesBadDynamicSQL. We do not have to change any other code. At this point run the application one more time and type the following text in the "Firstname" textbox and click the "Search" button. ' Drop database SalesDB -- Notice "SalesDB" database is not dropped, So in this case our application is not succeptible to SQL injection attack. Summary : Whether you are creating dynamic sql in a client application (like a web application) or in a stored procedure always use parameters instead of concatnating strings. Using parameters to create dynamic sql statements prevents sql injection.
Views: 30928 kudvenkat
118. ON UPDATE SET NULL in SQL (Hindi)
 
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Please Subscribe Channel Like, Share and Comment Visit : www.geekyshows.com
Views: 2941 Geeky Shows
Oracle Database11g tutorials 14 : How to CREATE TABLE using sql developer and command prompt
 
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Oracle Database11g tutorials 14 How to Create table using command prompt and Create table using sql developer Blog Link http://bit.ly/1TkY4Oe Time Line 0:25 Introduction of Tables in Database 1:03 What is Create Table (Introduction of create table) 1:30 Syntax of Create Table 2:08 How to create table using Command Prompt 4:55 How to create table using SQL Developer Links for Oracle Database tutorials 4: database connectivity using SQL developer and command prompt http://youtu.be/wSqoXRlXDUU You can have indepth knowledge about SQL create table here http://www.rebellionrider.com/sql-create-table.html Tool used in this tutorial is command prompt. This tutorial series is part of SQL expert exam certification training. if you are preparing for SQL certification you can use my tutorials. This SQL Tutorial is a part of free training. Copy Cloud referral link || Use this link to join copy cloud and get 20GB of free storage https://copy.com?r=j7eYO7 Contacts E-Mail [email protected] Twitter https://twitter.com/rebellionrider Instagram http://instagram.com/rebellionrider Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/imthebhardwaj Linkedin. http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ Thanks for linking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com Today in this oracle database tutorial we will see How to CREATE A TABLE. if we have to define a table in layman language then we can say that Tables are just a collection of Rows and Columns but In RDBMS tables are database objects which help in organizing data into ROWS and COLUMNS. We can also say that SQL tables are kind of data structure which are used by database for efficient storage of data. To create a table in our database we use SQL CREATE TABLE command. SQL CREATE TABLE is a type of DATA DEFINITION LANGUAGE also known as DDL. To Create a table in your schema you will require CREATE TABLE system privilege. In our future videos we will see what are system and object privileges and how to grant them to a user. Today for this video we will be using Sample schema HR which already has all the necessary privileges. Ohk Let's see the syntax. CREATE TABLE table name ( column name1 Data-Type(size), column name2 Data-Type(size), ..... ); CREATE TABLE is an oracle reserved word or say an Oracle key word whereas There are 3 different ways of creating a table in Oracle database. Creating a table using Command Line Interface (CLI) in Oracle database For demonstrating how to create table in oracle database using CLI, I'll be using Command prompt. Thats how we create table using command prompt. you can check your table structure by DESCRIBE command for that just write DESC and your table name. Like this Another way of creating a table is by using Graphic user interface (GUI) in Oracle database To demonstrate how to create table using GUI we will use SQL developer. Lets open our SQL developer I am connected to HR schema if you do not know how to create a connection to database using SQL developer please watch my oracle database tutorial 4 that explains database connectivity using SQL developer and command prompt. Link for this video is in the description below. So lets create a table. Creating a table using SQL developer is very easy we do not have to fire any query here. Let's start First of all right click on your connection in which you want to create a table and choose schema browser. This will open a separate schema browser pane or you can expend your connection by clicking this + sign and then right click on table and choose New Table. However I prefer working with schema browser so let's skip to schema browser pane here from the first drop-down list you can choose connection name and in the second drop down list you can choose what database objects you want to work with we want to create a table thus I'll choose table and then click this arrow here and choose option for new table Ok we have created a table wizard first of all give a unique name to your table and add some column as well. For this, click the green plus button. Now we already have a column so give it some name. Also choose a datatype from the list and specify any size you can check this not null column if in case you want to make this a mandatory column you can also specify default value and constraint If you want to make this column a primary key you can click here In my future video i'll show you what are these constraints and different ways of applying them on a column in a table. for this video we will concentrate on create table only so when you are done with all your columns click ok Thats your table You can double click on your table here and can see its structure. Thats it
Views: 175366 Manish Sharma
RENAME COLUMN, DROP COLUMN in Oracle SQL
 
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Oracle SQL tutorials, How to RENAME COLUMN, DROP COLUMN
SQL SERVER 2017 : PART 3.1 (CREATE TABLE STATEMENT)
 
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Well come to sql server tutorial part 3.1. Today I will show you how to create and modify table in query editor, Using create table and alter table statement. In part 3, I have talked about table, how to create it graphically and data types. In previous tutorial we have created customer table. Now I am going to create same table using query editor. USE TEST_DB CREATE TABLE Customer1 ( [CustomerID] [int] NOT NULL, [FirstName] [varchar](50) NULL, [LastName] [nchar](10) NULL, [BirthDate] [date] NULL, ) First login to sql server management studio. Click new query. Type use database name. Under that database the table will be created. For this tutorial test db is our database name. Now type create table and table name customer table. Press enter then type opening and closing first bracket. In between these bracket type column name data type and constraint. Every column must be separated by a comma sign. Click execute. Refresh database to view the newly created table. In practical environment you may need to modify table. In sql, it is called alter table. Now I will show you how to add and delete column from an existing table. Type alter table and customer table as table name. Then type add, column name and data type. Click execute. Select table. Click refresh. Expand to view newly added column. Now I will show you how to delete a column from a table. Type drop column and column name. Then click execute. COLUMN NAME joining date has been deleted. That’s all for today. Please subscribe to my channel. Don’t forget to comment and like or dislike.
Views: 1428 G Entertainment
60. ALTER TABLE for Adding Column by Position with constraints in SQL (Hindi)
 
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Please Subscribe Channel Like, Share and Comment Visit : www.geekyshows.com
Views: 7575 Geeky Shows
Optional parameters in sql server stored procedures  Part 68
 
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Text version of the video http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2013/09/part-68-optional-parameters-in-sql.html Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/2013/09/part-68-optional-parameters-in-sql_16.html All SQL Server Text Articles http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/free-sql-server-video-tutorials-for.html All SQL Server Slides http://csharp-video-tutorials.blogspot.com/p/sql-server.html All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in English https://www.youtube.com/user/kudvenkat/playlists?view=1&sort=dd All Dot Net and SQL Server Tutorials in Arabic https://www.youtube.com/c/KudvenkatArabic/playlists Parameters of a sql server stored procedure can be made optional by specifying default values. We wil be using table tblEmployee for this Demo. CREATE TABLE tblEmployee ( Id int IDENTITY PRIMARY KEY, Name nvarchar(50), Email nvarchar(50), Age int, Gender nvarchar(50), HireDate date, ) Insert into tblEmployee values ('Sara Nan','[email protected]',35,'Female','1999-04-04') Insert into tblEmployee values ('James Histo','[email protected]',33,'Male','2008-07-13') Insert into tblEmployee values ('Mary Jane','[email protected]',28,'Female','2005-11-11') Insert into tblEmployee values ('Paul Sensit','[email protected]',29,'Male','2007-10-23') Name, Email, Age and Gender parameters of spSearchEmployees stored procedure are optional. Notice that, we have set defaults for all the parameters, and in the "WHERE" clause we are checking if the respective parameter IS NULL. Create Proc spSearchEmployees @Name nvarchar(50) = NULL, @Email nvarchar(50) = NULL, @Age int = NULL, @Gender nvarchar(50) = NULL as Begin Select * from tblEmployee where (Name = @Name OR @Name IS NULL) AND (Email = @Email OR @Email IS NULL) AND (Age = @Age OR @Age IS NULL) AND (Gender = @Gender OR @Gender IS NULL) End Testing the stored procedure 1. Execute spSearchEmployees - This command will return all the rows 2. Execute spSearchEmployees @Gender = 'Male' - Retruns only Male employees 3. Execute spSearchEmployees @Gender = 'Male', @Age = 29 - Retruns Male employees whose age is 29
Views: 71594 kudvenkat
Learn Oracle | How to Create a Table using SQL | Not Null, Unique Key, Primary Key
 
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Pebbles present, Learn Oracle 10g with Step By Step Video Tutorials. Learn Oracle 10g Tutorial series contains the following videos : Learn Oracle - History of Oracle Learn Oracle - What is Oracle - Why do we need Oracle Learn Oracle - What is a Database Learn Oracle - What is Grid Computing Learn Oracle - What is Normalization Learn Oracle - What is ORDBMS Learn Oracle - What is RDBMS Learn Oracle - Alias Names, Concatenation, Distinct Keyword Learn Oracle - Controlling and Managing User Access (Data Control Language) Learn Oracle - Introduction to SQL Learn Oracle - Oracle 10g New Data Types Learn Oracle - How to Alter a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Create a Package in PL SQL Learn Oracle - How to Create a Report in SQL Plus Learn Oracle - How to Create a Table using SQL - Not Null, Unique Key, Primary Key Learn Oracle - How to Create a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Create a Trigger in PL SQL Learn Oracle - How to Delete Data from a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Drop and Truncate a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to Insert Data in a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to open ISQL Plus for the first time Learn Oracle - How to Open SQL Plus for the First Time Learn Oracle - How to Update a Table using SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Aggregate Functions in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Functions in PL SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Group By, Having Clause in SQL Learn Oracle - How to Use Joins, Cross Join, Cartesian Product in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use Outer Joins (Left, Right, Full) in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use the Character Functions, Date Functions in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use the Merge Statement in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use the ORDER BY Clause with the Select Statement Learn Oracle - How to use the SELECT Statement Learn Oracle - How to use the Transactional Control Statements in SQL Learn Oracle - How to use PL SQL Learn Oracle - Data Types in PL SQL Learn Oracle - Exception Handling in PL SQL Learn Oracle - PL SQL Conditional Logics Learn Oracle - PL SQL Cursor Types - Explicit Cursor, Implicit Cursor Learn Oracle - PL SQL Loops Learn Oracle - Procedure Creation in PL SQL Learn Oracle - Select Statement with WHERE Cause Learn Oracle - SQL Operators and their Precedence Learn Oracle - Using Case Function, Decode Function in SQL Learn Oracle - Using Logical Operators in the WHERE Clause of the Select Statement Learn Oracle - Using Rollup Function, Cube Function Learn Oracle - Using Set Operators in SQL Learn Oracle - What are the Different SQL Data Types Learn Oracle - What are the different types of Databases Visit Pebbles Official Website - http://www.pebbles.in Subscribe to our Channel – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNNjWVsQqaMYccY044vtHJw?sub_confirmation=1 Engage with us on Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/PebblesChennai Please Like, Share, Comment & Subscribe
Views: 186 Pebbles Tutorials

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